Integrated Circuits
Source: Electronic knowledge   Publish Time: 2011-05-23 11:38   4048 Views   Size:  16px  14px  12px
Integrated Circuits

An integrated circuit contains transistors, capacitors, resistors and other parts packed in high density on one chip.
Although the function is similar to a circuit made with separate components, the internal structure of the components are different in an integrated circuit.
The transistors, resistors, and capacitors are formed very small, and in high density on a foundation of silicon. They are formed by a variation of printing technology.
There are many kind of ICs, including special use ICs.

The top left device in the photograph is an SN7400. It contains 4 separate "2 input NAND" circuits. There are 7 pins on each side, 14 pins total.
ICs in this form are called Dual In line Package (DIP).
When an IC has only one row of pins, it os called a Single In line Package (SIP).
The number of pins changes depending on the function of IC.

At the bottom left is an IC socket for use with 14 pin DIP ICs.
ICs can be attached directly to the printed circuit board with solder, but it's better to use an IC socket, because you can easily exchange it should the IC fail.

On the top right is an LM386N audio amplifier. It can be used for amplification of low frequency, low power signals. IT has 8 pins and the maximum output is 660mW.

On the bottom right is a TA7368P, which also is for amplification of low frequency electric power. It has a maximum output of 1.1 watts.
It is a 9 pin SIP IC.

Common ICs

Below, the most common ICs are shown. (Those parts that I use most.)
For extensive details on each part, see the corresponding data sheet.
The part numbers of the SN74 series ICs are written with a 74, often followed by LS or HC.
LS (Low power Shottky) indicates low power consumption. HC indicates the device is High speed C-MOS (Complementary-Metal Oxide Semiconductor), and is also a low power consumption IC.
The average current consumption for each type of chip is listed below.
The current shown is for when the device is in a LOW state output. In the case of the LOW state output, current consumption is much greater than in the HIGH state output.

SN7400 ----- 22mA
SN74LS00 ----- 4.4mA
SN74HC00 ----- 0.02mA

Several kinds of ICs are not available in the LS or HC type. For example, SN7445 is not available in LS or HC. It is available only as SN7445, the normal type.

Name Function Vcc Pin Assign(Top View) Remarks
SN74HC00 Quad 2 Input NAND +5V 2 input NAND circuits entered 4 pieces
SN74HC04 Hex Inverters +5V Inverter circuit entered 6 pieces
+5V One of output takes LOW state serected by the binary input.
+5V Open collector type of 7442

Max current of output is 80mA.
SN74LS47 BCD to Segment
+5V Front View
Driving IC of ‚Vsegments LED.
Open collector type
Max resistance voltage:15V
6 and 9 disply type:
Related 74247
SN74HC73 Dual JK-FFs
With Clear
+5V 2 pieces of JK-FF
SN74LS90 Decade Counter +5V Asynchronous 2 + 5 counter.
Async preset : 9
Async clear
SN74HC93 4-Bit Binary
+5V Asynchronous 2 + 8 counter.
SN74HC123 Dual Retriggaerable
Single Shot
+5V Single shot resister holds the output in the required time from the input states goes to ON.
The output holding time corresponds to C(capacitor) and R(resistor) connected to the Cext(External capacitor) and Rext(External resistor) respectivly.
SN74LS247 BCD to Segment
+5V Front View

6 and 9 disply type:
Related 7447
SN74LS290 Decade Counter +5V This type is the same as the SN7490, with a different layout of pins.
SN74HC390 Dual Decade
+5V Type that inserted 2 SN7490.
Presetting 9 is omitted .
4040B 12Bit Binary
+5V 12-stage Binary counter.
It has a clear function.
Counts downward with an external clock pulse.
4541B Progarammable
+5V Programmable 16 stage binary counter.
Used in RC oscillation circuits, power reset, output control circuits.
Tap outputs of 8, 10, 13, 16 bits are possible by the control terminal.
NE555 Timer +4.5 to +16V Max frequency: 500kHz
Temperature drift: 0.005%/°C.
Max output current: 200mA.
Delay time setting
:several micro sec to several hours
LM386N-1 Low frequency electric power amplifier +4 to 12V Max output: 660mW
Load: 8 to 32-ohm
Waiting current: 4mA
LM386N-4 Low frequency electric power amplifier +5 to 18V

Max output: 1.25W
Load: 8 to 32-ohm
Waiting current: 4mA
TA7368P Low frequency electric power amplifier +2 to +10V Max output: 1.1W
Load: 4 to 16-ohm
uPC319 Voltage comparator 5 to 18V

Standard general use comparator with single power supply/dual power supply operation

Other compatible ICs
7975 Multi-melody IC
+1.5 to +3V Melody IC that includes 8 pre-programmed melodies.
It has 2 sound resources and a settable envelope.

Fur Elise
Heavenly Creatures
Ich bin ein musikante
Valse Favorite
Home On The Range

Three Terminal Voltage Regulator

It is very easy to get stabilized voltage for ICs by using a three terminal voltage regulator.
The power supply voltage for a car is +12V - +14V. At this voltage, some ICs can not operate directly except for the car component ICs. In this case, a three terminal voltage regulator is necessary to get the required voltage.
The three terminal voltage regulator outputs stabilized voltage at a lower level than the higher input voltage. A voltage regulator cannot put out higher voltage than the input voltage. They are similar in appearance to a transistor.

On the left in the photograph is a 78L05. The size and form is similar to a 2SC1815 transistor.
The output voltage is +5V, and the maximum output current is about 100mA.
The maximum input voltage is +35V. (Differs by manufacturer.)

On the right is a 7805. The output voltage is +5V, and maximum output current is 500mA to 1A. (It depends on the heat sink used)
The maximum input voltage is also +35V.

There are many types with different output voltages.
5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 12V, 15V, 18V

    Component Lead of Three Terminal Voltage Regulator

Because the component leads differ between kinds of regulators,
you need to confirm the leads with a datasheet, etc.

    Example of 78L05
    Part number is printed on the flat face of the regulator, and indicates the front.

    Right side : Input
    Center : Ground
    Left side : Output

Example of 7805
Part number is printed on the flat face of the regulator, and indicates the front.

Right side : Output
Center : Ground
Left side : Input

Opposite from 78L05.

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